Bitcoin is Key to an Abundant, Clean Energy Future

Square Crypto's whitepaper explains the business case for financing overprovisioning intermittent renewable energy with Bitcoin mining. A little uncritical IMHO, but a good start for asking difficult questions.

What People Get Wrong About Bitcoin's Climate Footprint

Nic Carter explains much of what I've written on in the FAQ concisely in this video:

Beyond the Energy Techlash: The Real Climate Impacts of Information Technology

A fact-based reexamination by ITIF of sensational claims about the climate impacts of broader IT, including a section on Bitcoin. ITIF also has a Clean Energy Innovation Policy Program that we are encouraging people to donate to because it appears both very efficient and fitting to Bitcoin's ethos.

Bitcoin energy use - mined the gap

Also a good explanation and rational look at FUD about Bitcoin mining's impact by the International Energy Agency. Unfortunately, some unexamined shitcoining promotion at the end.

Implausible projections overestimate near-term Bitcoin CO2 emissions

A brutal scientific takedown of an unspeakably bad article on Bitcoin mining that appeared earlier in the same prestigious journal and was reported everywhere in the media. I wonder why this factual repudiation didn't receive the same attention.

Cambridge Bitcoin Electricity Consumption Index

a live and scientific Bitcoin energy use calculation

3rd Global Cryptoasset Benchmarking Study

mining stats and estimates from CCAF

Bitcoin Mining’s Three Body Problem

explains seasonalities in Bitcoin Mining

Bitooda mining dashboard

current mining stats


Alex de Vries’ very biased views on the topic. But it does include links to further studies (those that support his views, mostly his own), and his estimations are getting closer to cbeci’s and others’

What we do. Done. 2 years earlier. We only found this pretty late, and it appears the initative has stalled a bit. We also couldn't reach them for collaboration so far. A great example to live up to anyway:

Introducing CBPI: A New Way To Measure Bitcoin Network Electrical Consumption

not actually very new, but interesting article contrasting several evaluation methods Tl;Dr: They get closer all the time. We know better how much energy is spent every day. (Co2 - not so much)

The Carbon Footprint of Bitcoin

Christian Stoll, Lena Klaaßen, and Ulrich Gallersdörfer in Joule

one of the earliest scientific estimates of Bitcoin's Co2 footprint

Life Cycle Assessment of Bitcoin Mining

Susanne Köhler and Massimo Pizzol in Environ. Sci. Technol.

appears to be the latest and currently best actual estimate of CO2 emissions; pioneered the use of the Life Cycle Assessment method for Bitcoin; finds that, at least regarding Co2, impacts beyond electricity (waste etc.) are negligible

Bitcoin’s future carbon footprint

Preprint by the authors of (#the-carbon-footprint-of-bitcoin) plus Shize Qin and Da Zhang. Extremely speculative tea leaf reading making too many assumptions. Still very interesting as probably the first written account of many factors going into this question.

Proof of Work, a pictorial essay

by Adam Gibson. Slightly rambling, might still be the clearest explanation of what the actual value of PoW is.

The Cost of Bitcoin Mining Has Never Really Increased

by Yo-Der Song and Tomaso Aste. Gives an interesting perspective: The cost of Bitcoin mining has remained astonishingly constant at about 1% of the value transferred.